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Spinal Disc Pathology

The spinal vertebrae are separated by fluid filled pads known as the Nucleus Pulposus. These are surrounded by a tough, fibrous outer membrane called the Annulus Fibrosus and are held in place by the spinal ligaments and surrounding muscle. The pads act as shock...

What is Hyperalgesia?

Hyperalgesia describes an increased response to pain; this is caused by the ‘super activation’ of pain pathways, resulting in increased sensitivity to pain. Signals from pain pathways can be amplified due to the suppression of natural pain relieving pathways e.g....

Back Pain

Approximately 30% of patients present with lower back pain, making it one of the most common disabilities for people aged between 16 and 45 and the second most common reason for doctor visits, estimated at 7 million per year. Back pain costs the NHS approximately £400...